Welcome to the Northern Palatinate, by Detlef Uhrig

Welcome to Kirchheimbolanden = Kibo, by Detlef Uhrig

Hi, welcome to our homepage. Kirchheimboladen  is situated northeast of Kaiserslautern, between the Air Base Ramstein and 60 miles Southwest from Frankfurt. We are in the heart of the European Union. Only, between the Rhine River and the French border. You will find us on the Google map. The scenery is hilly, like in Southern Wisconsin or in Cornwall/England. Kirchheimbolanden  has about 8.750 citizens and the most are descended from immigrants, who came 350 years ago. For them we can paint old family trees, but the history of this city is 2,000 years older.

The period, the glorious time of the Celtic civilization started about in the 5th century B.C. We found spurs of settlements around the village, but especially up hill around the church.

61 B.C. The Teutonic (German) military leader beats the Celtics. In consequences the German people named Vangionis settled in the area of Worms. Since that time this area is called the Wonnegau.

In our area settled the Celtics, but the Roman emperor Julius Caesar beat them 50 b.Ch. The Donnersberg, in English >Hill of Thunders<, is our highest hill, about 2,100 feet high. On the top was the Celtic center, a city with 40,000 people, protected by a wall of a length of 7.5 miles. The Romans moved them with all their stuff to the Rhine River, where they founded the famous cities Mainz, Oppenheim & Worms. So they took all their properties with them, so the archeologists couldn’t find anything, not even a nail or a worthless coin.

Caused by the Germans attacks in the 5th century, the Roman Empire collapsed. The Francs and with them Albis and his family came to our place. First they built simple huts with thatched roofs, cleared the valleys and hills and made livestock breeding.   For centuries nothing special is reported,. Although nothing before this date is known with certainly, first in 835. Except that was graves and Roman earth monuments are reporting. The German Emperor Ludwig, we call him the Religious, stayed several times in his castle of Albisheim, when he traveled around to see and to govern his huge Rich. On May 25th 835 he was in a very good mood, after winning the Civil War against his son Lothar, who had put him into prison. After being released, Ludwig expressed his thanks to the monastery of Prüm. He pleased for the prays during his captivity. Filled with gratitude to the Lord, he  (He showed his gratitude to the Lord) presented Albisheim with its church & the next village – in the North-  Stetten, as a gift to the Monastery of Prüm. Since that time estate and farmers became the property either of nobles or of some monasteries.

  1. 869. the next king was Ludwig, called the He stayed on June 24th in Albisheim. This day became a wonderful, an unforgettable highlight in the very long history of Albisheim. The reason, he gave as gift a big forest of 1 ½ square mile to Albisheim.

In the next 700 years the owners often times changed. Finally the Earls of Nassau/Weilburg bought the country and they became the sovereigns, living in the castle of Limburg. In 1560 the Duke changed the religion and all the subjects had to do the same. Since that time the Northern Palatinate were either Lutherans or Calvinists, with the advantage, that all kids had had go to school, for learning reading the Bible. The pope, the catholic kings and emperors didn’t accept the change and so the religious wars started in 1618/1648. In the middle of Europe a horrible war caused havoc. A war between the holy catholic German emperor, simultaneously king of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and on the other side the Lutheran dukes of Hess, Thuringia, Prussia, Lower Saxony,  Saxony.  At the first glance both parties were fighting for the true faith, but in reality they were running for their own power and advantages.

The war(s), battles went back- and forwards and the country was devastated in the same measure by friends and enemies. New Warlords, as the French king, Spanish troops, the Swedish king Gustav Adolf with 40.000 fighters played, gambled a deadly game, to reach their inhuman aims. All villages in our area were destroyed, the harvests exterminated. With an incredible brutality people were tortured, killed, raped. Some gangsters in uniform had fun to poke the people the eyes out and to give the farmers stagnant slurry to drink, so that they died with a lot of pains after few hours.

In July 1635 catholic troops from Austria (Croatians) stormed Kaiserslautern and only 50 – 100 people of former 2.300 citizens survived the bloody mass murder of that night. The survivors escaped to Metz and Sedan in France. No words can describe the misery, the poverty of the few, hidden in caves, hollows. They led a miserable life, always hungry and sick, hollowed eyed.

Also the epidemics of pest in the years 1625 and 1635 killed each time a quarter of the population and all 10 years the pock epidemic & the typhoid fever did the rest. Anyway, perhaps only 5 % survived the horrible war of 1618/1648 . Within three decades the farmland turned into a wilderness. All become overgrown by blackberry bushes, hedges and the forest reconquered best fields. In 1648: the area  was pretty empty and in Albisheim survived only 15 persons. Few refugees came back from Metz, Sedan, Frankenthal, cities protected by strong city walls or fortresses. But the task was to huge for the few people, so the Earl of Nassau -Weilburg sent messengers to other countries with also reformed churches, like Switzerland and the Netherlands. Also French people were welcome, who were kicked out by the French king Louis XIV. Step by step singles and families with a lot of members came in, to rebuilt, to cultivate the area. People from whole Germany like Dietz, Göhring, Leuck, Franck married girls from Albisheim and founded lasting dynasties. The Earls of Nassau encouraged Mennonites from Switzerland to come. They got privileges. For decades they got exemption from unpaid voluntary services and did not pay taxes for 10 years.

The priests had been died or were escaped and the old church books had disappeared. In 1661 Ludwig Koch became the first pastor of Albisheim, who started with the new parish register, financed by the rectory. Koch found some small pieces of paper of his predecessor. With those information he started the new church book. Thanks to the death register, we can look back till 1600.

This recovery was shortened, however, when the Palatinate became a major battle site for the War of the League of Augsburg 1688 – 1697, waged by Louis XIV of France against the German states. Soon there were French troops in and around Albisheim and the priest Ludwig Koch was chased away end of November 1688. The old wonderful gothic church was turned into a horses table and all wooden stuff was destroyed and burned. It was a mess, when the French soldiers left and the new Lutheran priest Graeser (Greser) assumed his service on January first 1699. The rain was leaking through the ceiling; the old colored windows were broken. Instead of crying, everybody lends a hand. In few months the church was cleaned & remodeled. The new pulpit was financed by donations of Fabian Baum, Christoph Meurer and what a surprise, even the Jewish citizen Sueskind gave some money.

The time between 1699 and 1702 was peaceful, full of hopes and dreams. But in 1703 the peace turned into war. The French troops marched in again and they stayed for further ten years. But fortunately in Albisheim For example: the priest Ludwig Koch wrote down in the death registers: “1706,  on March 25th, Gerhard Dietz, citizen and assessor in criminal cases, was brought to earth (had a Christian funeral), his age 80 years”. When you calculate, you will find out that Gerhard Dietz was born in 1626. On one hand it is pity that we can look back only 12 generations. Although only 12 generations back, but these are already for genealogists a tremendous amount of forefathers. Can you imagine what this means? We have 350 years back 2.024 ancestors in one line. Naturally it is impossible to find all of them. And 800 years back, when the family names were invented. If we would have all information  about these ancestors, we could see more than a Million in one line. Thanks God, that the very old church books burned and so we have only Thousands in our family trees.

Concerning the dim and distant past the Immigrants from Switzerland are making a praiseworthy exception, because in Switzerland there were since centuries no wars. So it is possible – if you want  to find the ancestors back to 1500 of  Bürky and of the other  Mennonites families who came in the Palatinate about 1640 – 1660.

To the parish of Albisheim belonged since 1706 the farm Heyerhof and some mills around. The church book of Albisheim contains separated collections of registers of weddings, deaths, births, confirmations & special events. In the 1950  all church books of the Palatinate came to the Central Archive of the “Evangelische Kirche (= church)” of Speyer, next building to the old cathedral of Speyer. And what happened with the church books?

  1. A good idea, all Church books got a new bookbinding after a public invitation to tender. But who won? Naturally the cheapest and in this way, the kind of renovation is. The frayed margins were taped; today after 40 years, the text on the outer edge is hard to read.
  1. On page of the church (= foliate) book measures about DIN A 3. The Mormons of Salt Lake City, Utah, financed obviously the book binding and therefore they got the right, to microfilm all church books. The “Evangelische Kirche (church) der Pfalz” in Speyer got one copy. For genealogists (also in the S.A.) it could be easy now to find ancestors, when you can read the script of the 18th century. First you have to buy a copy for few dollars, but another problem is the expensive appliance. Or you’ll drive weekly to the opening hours. The biggest, a real problem for the beginners would be, how to read the old documents! Each priest wrote in another way. Few scribbled, some used abbreviations, sometimes the few words, and the whole text was nearly illegible.
  1. In the archive of Speyer you have to use the microfiches. So the librarians are taking care for the old documents. (On 1 microfiche is one page = foliate). The copy of 1 microfiche costs ½ €. The service, the help of the Archive in Speyer is great!

What did the priests write down? We had 5 priests, all are right now well known.

The death & birth registers (1699 – 1798)

The typical note was simple: “On Nov. 28th 1706 died Johann Michael Schehr, council man of Heffersweiler in the age of 86 years.” This had been a simple, but very clear information. But the priests started to glow when something happened against the Ten Commandments. Then they waked up and described with drastic, blunt phrases, words full of hate the immorality, the decline in moral standards. When a girl got an illegitimate child of his boyfriend, she was called by everybody a whore and the child was called as a child of a whore. For the girl’s family it was a crying shame and the grandfather tried to let die the child within the first 24 hours. After this disgrace, the girl’s father was looking for a son in law living at least 4 hours away. Example is the poor Anna Christina Ecker (* 1693), who was married 18 months after her fall  to Dannenfels (oo  20.8.1715). And even when she died in the age of 33 y. the priest wrote down “she was a none chaste person”. For us, the readers of the old church book it is very easy to find the exceptional stories, because the priest marked all accidents, all violations & crimes with the big letters “NB” (nota bene). Although the church book was not public, but the general public knew all. In those times there was no newspaper in the North of the Palatinate, but everybody knew after few hours all interesting stories. The word of mouth, the rumors were faster then the printed papers. Also bound to secrecy, everybody told what he found out. When

 

  • the 35 years old Carpenter Henry Schwartz of Nußbach was killed by the 24 years old, tipsy Adam Dietz from Gersweilerhof on the occasion of a topping out on 16th 1715.

 

*  It happened on Nov. 11th 1729. The 64 years old   widower Peter Moreau visited his 54 years old girl friend, Anna Elisabetha Ecker. Since one year she was widow. They had fun together and Peter drunk few home-made fruit  liquors. I think, he was in a very good mood, when he left. So he did not exercise great caution. He did not see the deadly risks of the icy, steep stairs. Peter slid, no he flew down. And there was no railing, where he could grabbed his hands. Seriously injured he laid at the foot of the stairs. Anna Elisabetha called for help and  neighbors came. But none had a medical training, the next M.D. lived in Kaiserslautern and so, Peter Moreau died at noon.

 

* The farmer Johannes Frenger impregnated  his pretty female servant Anna Catharine Fuchs in 1747. Frenger, a young man, full of fire, did not marry Anna Catharine. And he maid the disastrous mistake to hire  after next month an attractive girl as servant. Mary Elisabetha Schreiner was her name. Johannes had not had his wild feelings under control. And so it was inevitable that would happened. Mary Elisabetha Schreiner got a baby in 1748. Frenger did public penance in the naturally overcrowded church of Albisheim, But the duke Christian IV., without mercy,  deported the crying sinner. Johannes Frenger lost all. The priest remarked, he went to “bohlen” (= Poland).

 

  • the 24 months old boy Johann Carl Bacher fell on 10th 1774 into the well close to the linden tree. After few hours of searching, they found him dead. He drowned.

 

  • the 21 years old Johann Heinrich Armbrust, farmhand in Imsbach, was picking cherries on the 13th July 1779. He fell from the cherry tree, broke his right leg two times and died of the Anthrax virus on the next day.

 

  • I remarked, that often times the date of living age at the moment of death were not correct. When possible, I noticed the date of birth. Either the people were older, ore younger then the indicated age in  the death book.

 

  • In 1745, all priests of the Palatinate generally noted most of the death reasons. So we have good resources for different scientific researches. All ten years, the people died of Typhus, pest, pocks. A lot of people suffered under whooping cough and died very young. The biggest problem was the low hygienic level. restrooms were to close to the wells, people took drinking water out of the contaminated Odenbach creek. There was no toilette paper and people used their left hand for cleaning. The washer was not yet invented and the people suffered from an infestation of bugs & flees. It was itching and the people scratched a deathly illness in their bodies. After their death cloths were removed to be used by other people, spreading the disease even further.

 

The old wedding register (1700 – 1798)

 Of all church books, the wedding book was the most harmless. The priest wrote down in cool words the date of wedding, name of the bride and groom, their parents, and the village of origin. But when one of both was widower/widow, the priest noted it. But the church book gives no answer, about the first marriage. So you have to look into the death register, when the first partner died. Also it is often possible to find the  first marriage.  I improved the old church wedding register in completing the birthdays & the  days of death. I hope, the improvements, the higher precision, makes it easier to find your path through the complicate family relations.

My scientific research started with the parish register. This is extensive literature which contains information of several villages. Every village has its own subdivisions in birth-, wedding and death registers. I started with the marriages and picked out their children from the register of baptism. Exactly the same procedure was followed with the chronological death index. By comparing the files very carefully (up to 10 times), I could assign thousands of people to their families.

In 1793, the French Revolution Army conquered the German area west of the Rhine River. At the very beginning the Palatinate was treated as any conquered country typically would be. But in 1798 the French Government changed its attitude. In the treaty of Lunéville, it legally enforced that the Palatinate became a part of France. With the highest hill (2.000 feet high) in mind, the district got the name “district of mount thunder”. Due to the French administration during the short timeframe from 1798 through 1814, all areas of life were positively effected. This was the start of modern times. Until 1798, the nobles lived off the hard work of poor people. The nobles were well off and indifferent towards the downright monstrous poverty of ordinary people. They walked around in velvet & silk and did not care for the problems of people who lived in simple sheds. Forced by war, they escaped in Fall 1793 eastwards of the Rhine and never returned. The French Government realized the slogans, the aims of liberty, equality, freedom for all people.

First, the French government built up an efficient administration system for the whole area. Albisheim was the center of an administration district with six villages (around 1.200 citizens). The population elected Johannes Bacher as mayor. He did this job for 16 years. Also, he had an employee, first a German, then a French one, who did the paper work. The French administration rules were strict  and  standardized, valid in the whole Republic of France. The old building of 1696 was simultaneously used as school house, the teacher’s apartment and registry office.

The remaining French documents are in 5 volumes, bound in light brown leather. Each one is for two years. They cover the timeframe from  September 1800 through the end of 1811. I was very surprised and extremely excited to find them in the archives of the small city of Rockenhausen, hidden in the dark basement. For genealogists like me, the old French documents are a true place of file treasures.

In October 1813, Napoleon lost the bloody & decisive battle of Leipzig. On New Year´s Eve 1814, the very famous Prussian General Bluecher crossed the Rhine River and by January 1st , 1814, all French soldiers had left the area, but the exemplary French administration stayed. The Bavarian kingdom kept the French system and ideas and thus, the Palatinate became the symbol for progress and democracy in Germany.

I forged links between the often poor & incomplete registration in the parish registers to the excellent references in the files of the official documents. An example: Johannes Schultheiß was born on July 6, 1780, a fact stated (in German) by Priest Johann Erasmus Vollmar. His son and his successor had to close the parish registers in August/September 1798 and hand the documentation over to the new municipality of Albisheim. Before Johannes Schultheiß was allowed to marry his bride Maria Catharina Lahmers on August 26, 1811, the city official had to verify the particulars. In case the marriage partners came from another county far away or even from another state, it may have taken up to a year, before both got married in the registry office. Appropriate to the check, the wedding documents (naturally in French) are extremely correct and therefore essential to the genealogical research. The wedding document may have up to two pages, meanwhile the priests aforementioned wrote at most three lines into the parish register. I felt lucky whenever I was able to find the connecting piece between the different types of documents. Then, it gets easy for you to make your own branched, individual family tree.

 

Advise:  You should start with the information you already have about your own grandparents or grand grandparents. Perhaps, their places of origin are known to you. Any ship records available to you will be quite useful. In the state of “Rheinland-Pfalz”, the “Verbandsgemeinde” in Göllheim, Winnweiler & Kirchheimbolanden will assist you with finding your forefathers. For the 18th century, you will need to contact the “Evangelische Kirche der Pfalz” in Speyer. Or in the U.S.A., phone the next Church of Mormons, close to your home. You will find them easily through “Switchboard.com”.  You can order for few dollars a copy of all German parish registers. Two problems may be encountered. Only few people are still able to read the ancient handwritings and on the other hand, you need a special appliance for reading film and fiche materials!

 

I discovered that all families of that area are related to each other over several family lines.  So, your family tree will be more of a rose bush than a tree! Especially  in the 19th century, I frequently intermarriages between cousins & grand cousins. Also life expectancy at that time was low. If the wife died left children, then normally her younger sister got acquainted to and married the widower and had with him yet more children. When  the housewife was widowed, she had to marry again soon so that her kids did not starve. Death brought a deep sorrow with it, but life had to go on and the survivor found consolation  with the new partner.

 

I successfully resolved all obstacles. But 20 years ago, a strict Data Protection Act was passed in Germany. This represents a hard cliff to obtain information for the time after 1876. Like Frankenstein may have done, at night I went out to the cemeteries with a flashlight and read  tombstones, obituaries !

 

Genealogy is also like mathematics. Going twelve generations back, and you end up around 1650.  A mathematics exercise: How many of your lineal ascendants lived in those time? The answer: These are 211, or 2.048 persons. This assumes strict linear descent and not any intermarriages of relatives: The number of ascendants in the example of Albisheim as mentioned above is considerably less!

 

I created the three volumes of these texts in two years and spent more than 2.000 hours of work during my leisure time. There were no holidays, no vacation, no TV, no party, nothing!! I drove around and met a lot of people. I read thousand of documents and many old books. I did this job as a true volunteer and did not got any pay for it, but only satisfaction and contentedness !

 

The registry office after 1817

 

The new registers are  a dream for us,  super valuable sources for the genealogists. The Bavarian administration improved all. Caused by the new laws & administration rules the civil servants had to fill out  extensive forms for weddings, births & deaths.

 

The wedding document ( 1 up to 2 pages) contained a perfect description of the groom and bride: their age,  born in and the date of birth. Fathers & mothers name, their age & profession. When they were already dead, the civil servant wrote down also the names of all 4 grandparents with the date of their deaths. When the groom was in the army, the employee noted  the Unit (“5th royal regiment of the Duke of Hess in Germersheim”) with the date of discharge. In each form 4 male marriage witnesses were named with age, profession, degree of relationship, place of residence and so on. So we had always a control of other files. All parents (4 people), the witnesses (4), bride & groom (2) and the mayor had to sign up the wedding document. When anybody of the 10 persons was illiterate, the employee documented it (“the mother of the bride is unable to write”.

 

Since 1980  we have in Germany a Data Protection Act, which us obstruct in researching. That the reason that we are not allowed to publish family info about the present time.

 

Agriculture + professions

 

Our villages are situated in the valley, Pfrimm creek. 2 miles upriver, in Marnheim the hills are very flat. But in Albisheim there are steep slopes and for the agriculture unsuitable. The bottom of the valley has only a width of 150 – 200 yards. The ground is bogy and in the swamp grows only sour grass. Hard conditions for a unprofitable agriculture.

 

300 to 200 years ago, the agriculture was the heart, simultaneously the body of the economy. The life, the appearance of the society, of the agriculture was a total different one then today. Center was the meat- and milk production.  The cows were smaller then the cattle’s nowadays. Everybody had more time for himself and the pets. The cows were fully grown in the age of 6 – 8 years, meanwhile also the successful cows are already slaughtered in the age of nearly 6 years. In those time the  low milk production was between 175 – 420 gallons a year,  less then a quarter –  a fifth of today. The additional big worth to the farmers was the power, to pull the plough, the harrow, the hay cart. In those times the value of a cow was higher then a horse.

 

The male calf were castrated at the age of 2 years and the ox  grew till 10 y. In the age of 12 – 14 years,  the ox was the very strongest, but also very skilled. The municipality of Albisheim kept only one breeding bull, which was the property of all.

 

In the morning, after milking, the farmers opened the small cowsheds and the horned animals walked to the meeting point, close to the small bridge, where the cowherd like Daniel Morauer waited. Over there was a small briefing between the 3 – 4 herdsmen (shepherd, herdsman for pigs), they coordinated where to go today. The cowboy went ahead and the cattle followed him. He brought them to the pastures or in the late summer into the small forests on  the steep hill sides, where the oaks and beech trees were. The pets enjoyed over there the fat fruits (acorns & beechnuts).

 

In the late afternoon the cowherd brought back the smart cows/ox to the meeting point and they returned home to their farm. The farmer milked his best friends (cows) and  enjoyed the fresh milk. The farmers wife used to make fresh butter and cheese. It was a good income, when the farmer could sell milk to the neighbors.

 

To put animals out to graze was the result of the insufficient, antiquated field management. In average a farmer had had 18 acres, few had more, the most less! On a third he planted wheat, turnips, spelt. 6 acres had been pasture and on another he start to cultivate potatoes, carrots or something else. Next year there was a rotation. He turned the grass-land to fields to plant linen, the field with former wheat got pasture and on the third he planted other things like cabbage. Whatever the farmer did, the harvest didn’t bring in enough to live on for the increasing young families. The result, the yield was at the most only 50 % of the possibilities in those time. Additional the taxes and the rent had been to high. So many singles, whole families emigrated during centuries to the U.S.A., Prussia, Russia, Austria and other countries, promising a good, glorious future as a free man/woman!

 

The red sandy soil in that area was & is infertile and brought only a yield between 30 at the most 50 %, compared to fields in  fertile areas. After world war II, first the farmers hesitated, then they started with the use of fertilizer (1950), herbicide (1955) and fungicide in 1960. Before, the harvest was a lottery and not a product of systematic farming management. Many essential factors determine the farmers success, but either the reasons were unknown or not explored. Step by step the financial situation improved. Today the farmers are causing an agriculture overproduction. Reasons are the technological development, super mechanization, new cultivation, new breeds and seeds. This surplus is causing dropping prices for agricultural products worldwide. When the farmers reap a bumper harvest, also the prices are drooping.  On the other hand, since years the prices for the farm equipment, harvesters, tractors, repair costs are increasing.

 

Emigration

The emigration was no sign for the thirst of adventure. The people didn’t not need a kick or a  thrill. The most lived in extreme, grinding poverty. All suffered quite a lot from epidemics of cholera, typhoid, pocks. Infections childhood diseases killed 2 of 5 kids, only 3 children got older then 5 years and married. The life was a hard toil, tribulation and deprivation. And additional the administration squeezed out the population, even in times of crop failure. Although the living conditions not looked to good, the demography shows for Albisheim (1700 – 1798) an increase of population of about 200 people  (450 deaths & 650 births). Some found a small job as linen weaver, but they also had been caught in poverty. So a bunch of reasons caused the emigration. In the 18th century  there were 4 main suspicious areas at different time.

 

1709: After two wars (1689 – 1709) in the Palatinate, a quarter of the population escaped in spring 1709. First Hundreds, then thousands, then 50.000 went away down the Rhine river to Rotterdam. By English sailing ships, about 1.000 came via Southampton directly to Virginia. In very old documents it is described, that about 40.000 Palatinates eked out a miserable existence for long  months, without tents in front of the city walls of the small city of London. They lived without any protection against wind, rain -like cattle – on a pasture. They had an absolute miserable, a lousy, wretched life. The small sailing ships had only a small capacity and so it took a long time, till all families had found a new country. Also the transport management brought big financial problems, especially the British government refused to finance the transport. On the other hand, the ship-owners could not transport free of charge the poor refugees. The deal was: The American colonies governors found farmers, workshops, business-men who prepaid the transfer and as service in return the immigrants had to work and to live for three years under the conditions of slaves. Hard conditions, but it could be much worse.

 

Since 1727 the old English ship records are still existing and they are published.  I think, some US Americans will find their ancestors over there.

 

1750/ 1763: the Prussian king, Friedrich II., won a long war (1756 – 1763) against the immense superiority of Russian, Austrian and French troops. Prussia  needed a lot of people to built up an infra-structure in the conquered countries. The immigrants got a super initial aid: free farmland, animals, seeds, money. For ten Thousands irresistible conditions for a better life. And additional, for 10 years no taxes & freedom of worship.

 

1785: The kingdom of Austria & Hungarian won wars against the Ottoman Turkey. The Turks were driven out and the government needed settlers. They sent out messengers first only into catholic countries, but not enough people came. After two unsuccessful trials in 30 years, the very catholic Austrian king opened the areas in Galicia and in Batschka/Banat (today in North Yugoslavia) for the Lutherans. I estimated that, about 30 people from Albisheim/ Gersweilerhof went to Austria; they became the same supports & conditions as the Prussians guaranteed.

 

1815 – 1900: the families had now between 10 – 19 children. Medical and hygienic step forwards reduced drastic the infant mortality and the population in Albisheim and Germany exploded. The three booming  textile factories in Kaiserslautern, Albisheim, Otterbach needed a lot of workers. The sewing industry of Pfaff and the bike production of Kayser had been very successful and many people moved to K-town. But the population pressure was to strong and so many, also from Albisheim/ Gersweilerhof emigrated to the U.S.A.

 

School

In the 18th century the principality of Nassau- Weilburg had a liberal, an  exemplary system. It was a state under the rules of laws, with a perfect school, education, tax administration and legal system for all social parts of social life.   All kids from six up to 12 years had to go to school, the boys to 13/14. In the 20 villages and in the city of Kirchheimbolanden were no illiterates, but in the area around … At the end of their school time, all kids were able to write and read, and everybody mastered the rules of three. The very best boys could go to the Latin school in Weilburg, All was free and the parents weren´t charged for anything. After their college qualification the young men got a stipend (scholarship) for the University of Marburg in Hessia. Both successful steps were a guarantee for a lifelong high social position, for a carefree life, but naturally with a high responsibility for the state and people. Compared with Weilburg in those times, Greece in the 21th century is a state of the 3rd world.

 

End of 1793 French troops conquered the whole area, west of the Rhine River. So the country from Basel, Switzerland, up to the Dutch border got French territory. Our county got the name “Département Mont Tonnère”. Now all people – west of the Rhine River participated in the progress of the French Revolution. All villages and counties got official registry office, which recorded all births, weddings, deaths, regardless to the religion of the citizens, In the time before 1798, only  the Catholic and Lutheran priests noted the family backgrounds. Thanks to this modern system, we got infos about the Jewish and Mennonites. After that Napoleon lost his battles in 1813 – 1815, (after the congress of Vienna) the Palatinate got a part of the kingdom of Bavaria, But in our area the Bavarian administration continued the whole French one.